Chishandiso chekurapa ndicho chero chishandiso chakagadzirirwa kushandiswa pakurapa. Saka chii chinosiyanisa chipenga chinoshandiswa kubva kune chezuva nezuva chishandiso iko kuri kuitirwa kushandiswa. Zvigadzirwa zvekurapa zvinobatsira varwere nekubatsira varapi vehutano kuona uye kurapa varwere uye kubatsira varwere kukunda chirwere kana chirwere, vachivandudza hupenyu hwavo. Chikonzero chakakura chengozi ndechechisikirwo kana uchishandisa mudziyo nekuda kwekurapa nekudaro michina yekurapa inofanirwa kuratidzwa yakachengeteka uye inoshanda shuwa zvine hungwaru vasati vatonga hurumende vabvumidze kushambadzira kwechishandiso munyika yavo. Sekutonga kwese, sezvo njodzi yakabatana neiyo mudziyo inowedzera huwandu hwe kuyedzwa kunodiwa kuti ugadzike kuchengeteka uye kunyatsoita basa kunowedzerawo. Kupfuurirazve, sezvo njodzi yakabatana inowedzera mukana uripo kumurwere unofanirawo kuwedzera.

Kuwanikwa kwezvaizofungidzirwa sechinhu chinoshandiswa pakurapa nemazuva ano zviyero zvichidzoka senge c. 7000 BC muBaluchistan uko maNeolithic vanachiremba vemazino vakashandisa mafiriko-akapetwa kudhiraivha uye miseve. [1] Kuongororwa kwekuchera matongo uye zvinyorwa zvekurapa zveRoma zvinoratidzawo kuti mhando dzakawanda dzezvipenga zvekurapa dzaive dzakapararira panguva yeRoma yekare. [2] MuUnited States yakange isiri iyo iyo Federal Chikafu, Doro, uye cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) muna 1938 izvo zvigadzirwa zvekurapa zvaidzorwa. Gare gare muna 1976, Medical Chipangidzo Amendments kuFD & C Act yakatanga chirongwa chekurapa kudzora nekutarisa sezvatinoziva nhasi muUnited States. [3] Medical mudziyo kudzora muEurope sekuziva kwedu nhasi zvakatanga kushanda muna1993 nezviri pamwe chete inozivikanwa se Medical Chipenga Directive (MDD). Musi waMay 26, 2017 iyo Medical Device Regulation (MDR) yakatsiva iyo MDD.

Zvigadzirwa zvekurapa zvinosiyana muzvose zviri zviviri yavo basa rekushandisa uye zviratidzo zvekushandisa. Mienzaniso inotangira kubva kuzvinhu zviri nyore, zvakaderera zvine njodzi dzakadai sekudzvinyirira rurimi, ma thermometers ekurapa, magurovhosi anotaridzika, uye maghedhi kune zvigadzirwa zvakaoma, zvine njodzi dzakakura dzinoiswa uye dzinosimbisa hupenyu. Mumwe muenzaniso wemidziyo ine njodzi yakanyanya ndeuyo une Embedded software senge pacemaker, uye inobatsira mukufambisa kwekuongororwa kwekurapa, kuwedzerwa, uye mapfupa. Zvinhu zvisinganzwisisike sedzimba dzimba dzekubatanidza machira zvinogadzirwa kuburikidza neakadzika anodhonza uye asina kudzika anodhonza maitiro ekugadzira. Dhizaini yemidziyo yekurapa inoumba chikamu chikuru chemunda weinjiniya wezvipenga.

Musika wepasi rose wekushandisa pakurapa wakasvika pamadhora mazana maviri nemakumi mapfumbamwe emadhora muna 209 [2006] uye unofungidzirwa kunge uri pakati pemadhora mazana maviri nemakumi maviri nematatu emadhora mazana maviri emadhora muna 4. [220] United States inodzora ~ 250% yemusika wepasi rose unoteverwa neEurope (2013%), Japan (5%), pamwe nenyika yose (40%). Kunyangwe pamwe chete Europe iine chikamu chakakura, Japan ine yechipiri yakakura kwazvo pamusika share. Musika wakakura kwazvo unogoverana muEurope (muhurongwa hwekuenzaniswa kwemusika) ndeyeGerman, Italy, France, uye United Kingdom Nyika dzese dzinosanganisira matunhu akaita (zvisina kunyorwa marongero) Australia, Canada, China, India, neIran. Chinyorwa ichi chinokurukura chinogadzira chirahwe chekurapa mumatunhu aya akasiyana uye muzvinyorwa zvese izvi matunhu anozokurukurwa zvichitevera chikamu chavo chemusika wepasi rose.

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